Hebrew Roots Glossary

Yehovah (alt. Adono) My L-rd, L-rd of all. Spoken instead of translating the tetragrammaton (YHVH)
Aliyah (Literally “going up”) Refers to the honor of being called up the bimah to recite or chant the blessings over the Torah. To make “aliyah” or “go on aliyah” means to immigrate to Israel
Bimah (From Beema, “altar”) Location in a synagogue from which worship is led
B’rit Hadashah Renewed Covenant (New Testament)
Challah The term is used to refer to a braided loaf of white bread used to celebrate the sabbath
Chumash The first five books of the Bible, the term is derived from the Hebrew word for “five.”
Elohim (Lit. mighty ones) Plural in form, it expresses the “compound unity” of the G-d of Israel.
Etz Chayyim Tree of Life
Hebrew (“to pass over, “cross over.”) A name given to the people of Israel and their language
Haftorah (Lit. “Final passage”) Passage from the Prophets read in the synagogue after the reading from the Torah.
Hashem (Lit. “The names”) Commonly used to refer to G-d, while avoiding casual use of His name in conversation.
Kippah A head covering worn by men for worship, religious study, or at any other time; also called yarmulke
Kosher (Alt. Kasher) Fit to be eaten according to Jewish dietary laws (our context is Biblical dietary laws)
Mashiach (Alt. Moshiach) Messiah, anointed, an anointed one. Three classes of persons were anointed for their office of service: —prophets, priests and kings. Yeshua Ha’maschiah is all three-Prophet, Priest and King.
Lashon Hara (Heb. “Evil Tongue”) Defaming of badmouthing
Mikvah A pool of water for washing away spiritual impurity by immersion (i.e. baptism)
Mitzvah A commandment (pl. mitzvot)
Mo’ed (Plural mo’adim) Literally “appointed time” or “set time” A holy day or a Feat. Listed in Leviticus 23
Parasha The weekly Torah portion; also called Sidrah or Sedrah or Sidra (Pl. Parashot)- divided into 54 portions
Rashi (1040-1105) Acronym for Rabbi Solomon (Sholomo) ben Isaac, a medieval sage of Troyes, France and commentator on the Torah.
Ramban (1194-1270) Rabbi Moshe ben Nachman, also known as Machmanides.
Ruach HaKodesh The Holy Spirit
Shabbat (Heb. “rest”) The Sabbath, the seventh day of the week, G-d’s appointed day of rest, a holy convocation
Shofar A ram’s horn
Talmud (Heb. “Study” or “learning”) Rabbinic Judaism produced two Talmuds: the one known as the “Babylonian” is the most famous in the western world, and was completed around the fifth century CE; the other, known as the “Palestinian” or “Jerusalem” Talmud, was edited perhaps in the early fourth century CE
TenachAn acronym for the Old Testament [T=Torah; N=Neviim (Prophets); Ch=Ketuvim (Writings), the threefold division of the Tenach]
Teshuvah (Lit. “return”) Repentance
Torah (Heb. “teaching, instruction,”— English law) In Rabbinic Judaism, Torah refers to the “five books of Moses.” In general, we believe Torah is the whole Bible
Oral Torah Talmud (see above)
Zizit (Tzitzit) Worn on a four-cornered garment (Numbers 15:37-41)
Yeshua (Alt. Yashua, Yahshua, Yoshua,— Yehoshua Literally means “G-d saves” or “YHVH is my salvation.”

Comments are closed.